Production & Placement

Production & Placement

Greening - SCIC #10 
Hardened concrete containing slag cement may show mottled green or blue-green areas a few days after placement, symptoms of a temporary condition known as "greening." SCIC #10, Greening, explains why the phenomenon happens, and explains that greening has no effect on the strength, durability and low permeability of slag cement concrete. Most surfaces that experience greening turn a uniform white or light gray color soon after exposure to direct sunlight and dry air.
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Concrete Proportioning - SCIC #2 
Careful proportioning of ingredients is essential to creating an optimal concrete mixture. SCIC #2, Concrete Proportioning, reviews the benefits of using slag cement and examines procedures for proportioning the material according to ACI 211.1. Slag cement may be proportioned from 20% to 80% of the mix, depending on the application and other conditions that are briefly reviewed. Many producers already offer a selection of concrete mixtures, and this information sheet also includes a table of percentages for use in re-proportioning mixtures with slag cement.
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Ternary Concrete Mixtures with Slag Cement - SCIC #20
Ternary concrete mixtures contain three cementitious materials. SCIC #20, Ternary Concrete Mixtures with Slag Cement, discusses ternary mixtures that include a combination of portland cement, slag cement and a third cementitious material like fly ash and silica fume. For decades, ternary concrete mixtures with slag cement have been used successfully, on projects including the Empire State Building and Reliant Stadium (NFL) in Houston. Ternary blends with slag cement can be used in virtually any concrete application, including paving, precast, shotcrete, masonry, general construction, high performance and mass concrete. This information sheet provides project examples and proportioning information.
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Concrete Time of Set - SCIC #3
Initial and final times of set provide an important indication of when concrete can be properly placed, consolidated and finished. SCIC #3, Concrete Time of Set, examines conditions that affect set times, including the incorporation of slag cement. Graphs compare the effect of temperature and accelerators on initial time of set in mixtures with 100% portland cement, 30% slag cement and 50% slag cement. In general, mixtures with less than 30% slag cement are not affected significantly. At temperatures below 85 degrees F, slag cement concrete experiences longer times of set, which can be offset by accelerators or heated materials.
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Saw Cutting Joints - SCIC #4
Saw cuts create joints in concrete, an effective method of controlling cracks from shrinkage. Joints must be cut after concrete has achieved enough strength to avoid raveling, but before internal stresses create cracks. SCIC #4, Saw Cutting Joints, examines a variety of factors that determine the right time to cut joints, and offers suggestions for calculating joint-cutting windows for concrete mixtures that include slag cement. This information sheet serves as a starting point for contractors who wish to learn more about saw cutting joints in slag cement concrete.
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Producing and Placing Slag Cement Concrete - SCIC #5
The same standards of care should be applied when handling all types of concrete, including concrete made with slag cement. SCIC #5, Producing and Placing Slag Cement Concrete, provides an overview of methods for handling slag cement concrete. Slag cement is stored, batched and transported in a similar manner to that of portland cement. When placing, finishing and curing slag cement concrete, careful planning will result in a successful finished product. This information sheet is an excellent overview for those new to working with slag cement concrete.
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Case Study:

I-96 Reconstruction

The I-96 Reconstruction project near Livonia, MI, entailed closure of 7 miles (11 km) of the eight-lane freeway, six full-service interchanges, and on- and off-ramps. In addition to full-depth pavement reconstruction, a total of 37 bridges were either rehabilitated or replaced. New LED lighting was added to brighten the freeway and provide better visibility and energy efficiency. Work was completed in 5.5 months—approximately 4 weeks in advance of schedule.

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