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Duck Lake Country Club

Location: Albion, Michigan

Award: Innovative Applications

Project Team

Owner: Duck Lake Country Club

Contractor: Merlo Construction Company, Inc.

Concrete: Shafer Redi-Mix Slag Cement: Holcim

Located in Albion, MI, USA, Duck Lake Country Club revived its distressed, asphalt parking lot by topping it with an unbonded, 4 to 6 in. (102 to 152 mm) thick overlay. Completed within 7 days with little disruption to members, the club was provided with a sustainable, long lasting, and economical solution—a concrete overlay containing slag cement.

Slag cement was used to mitigate potential concerns associated with alkali silica reactivity (ASR), while increasing long-term strength and durability.

The mixture contained both portland-limestone cement (PLC) and slag cement. Slag cement was made the SCM of choice with the knowledge that the alumina in the slag cement would react more completely with the finely ground limestone in the PLC to form additional carbo-aluminate hydrates, which would result in reduced porosity and increased strength.

The mixture also incorporated a high-range water-reducing admixture (HRWRA), 1.5 lb/yd3 (0.9 kg/m3) of synthetic macro fibers, and an integral sealer. The concrete was placed with a three-dimensional (3-D) laser screed, saw cut into 5 ft (1.5 m) panels, and cured accordingly.

Application Type

% Slag Cement Replacement


% Portland Cement

% Portland Limestone Cement


% Other SCM (if applicable)


3140 lbs

Water/cement ratio


7-day strengths

4000 psi

28-day strengths

6000 psi


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